Do you have questions about nouns and their uses? If so, the Ultimate Grammar Guide to Nouns in English has the answers you need. But what are nouns and how are they used? In this article, we are going to be taking a closer look at what a noun is, how it is used, and the rules surrounding its use. Explore the list of different types of nouns and how to use them correctly with examples. Check out a list of commongrammar mistakesto avoid making these errors in the future. Finally, the quiz below will test your noun knowledge.
What Is A Noun?
为了理解一个名词是什么,最simple explanation is that a noun is a word that is used to refer to a person, item, thing, or place. In every sentence in English, there must be a subject and that subject will always be a noun. However, the noun can also play other parts within a sentence such as the indirect or direct object, object or subject complement, adjective, or appositive. This means that every sentence you create will feature a noun, making this one of the most important aspects of English grammar.
What is a noun? A noun is described as a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, quantity, etc. The noun is apart of speechtypically denoting a person, place, thing, animal, or idea.
There are many differenttypes of nounsin English, each designed to serve a different purpose in an English sentence.
Common Examples of Nouns
As we mentioned earlier, the noun can be used to name a variety of different things. Let’s take a look a this.
Examples of Nouns to Name a Person
- The prime minister
- My sister
- A boy
- Barack Obama
Examples of Nouns to Name a Place
- The beach
- Mount Everest
- My kitchen
Examples of Nouns to Name a Thing
- An idea
- My plate
- The movie
Using a Noun in English Grammar
Using a Noun as a Subject or an Object
Each sentence that we speak or write must feature a subject and this will always be a noun. When we talk about the subject, we are referring to the place, person, or thing which is completing the action (verb) withinthe sentence. Look at the following examples:
- John is tall.
- The ball bounced.
John and the ball are the subjects of these sentences and are both nouns.
However, the noun can also be used as the object of a sentence. This can be either as a direct object, which is the noun that is on the receiving end of the action that was performed by the subject, or as an indirect object which is a noun that is a recipient of the direct object. Let’s take a look at some examples of this.
- Hand the bags to him.
- Move the plate towards the baby.
In this case, the words him and baby are both nouns being used as the object of the sentence.
Nouns Used as Object and Subject Complements
A noun can be used as asubject complementand this usually occurs when using a linking verb such as seem, to be, or become. An example of this is the sentence “John is a builder.” The noun builder is the subject complement as it is detailed what John is.
Further Uses of Nouns
There are many more ways in which a noun can function, let’s take a look at some of these now.
- When serving as an appositive noun, the noun will come directly after another noun as a way of defining it further. An example of this can be seen in this sentence, “My mother, Angela, is a nurse.” The noun Angela is theappositivenoun as it gives us further information on the first noun, mother.
- A noun may also be used as an adjective in some cases as well. Consider the word ‘light.’ This is a noun when talking about the light or a light, however it can become an adjective, as seen in this sentence, “The house has a light kitchen.”
- When using a possessive noun, in other words, a noun which is used to denote possession of something, anapostropheshould be used. For example, “These are the baby’s things.”
Concrete Nouns Examples
Concrete nounsare people, places, or things that we observe using the five senses. Nouns that we hear, see, taste, touch, or smell belong to this category of nouns. We can subcategorize concrete nouns into 2 types of nouns:properandcommon.
When looking at a sentence it is easy to pick out the concrete noun example. For example,She pets the zebra.
A zebra is something that you can touch, see, and hear. It is a common concrete noun.
Below find examples of nouns that are concrete.
Concrete Noun Examples
Examples of Common Nouns and Proper Nouns
Nouns are either common or proper.Common nounsdo not refer to a particular person, place, or thing. Common nouns are not capitalized.
In contrast. proper nouns represent specific places, people, and things. You capitalizeproper nounsno matter where they appear in a sentence.
An example of a proper noun would be Luke. The name refers to a specific person. In comparison, the common noun boy could refer to any number of males.
Examples of Common Nouns
Examples of Proper Nouns
- Cambridge University
- New York
- the Louvre
- New Zealand
Abstract nouns are the opposite of concrete nouns. They are nouns that you cannot touch, taste, hear, see, or smell. Abstract nouns refer to concepts, ideas, qualities, and feelings that are not tangible.
Sometimes it can be difficult to pick anabstract nounout of a sentence. This happens when a word like love appears in a sentence. Sometimes the word operates as a verb instead of a noun. For example:
- I love my mother.
Love is an action in this sentence so it does not function as an abstract noun.
- Love is kind.
In this sentence love is a thing. Hence, it acts as an abstract noun that you cannot touch.
Some words can have more than one grammatical usage. It is important to pay attention to how a particular word functions in a sentence.
抽象名词使communication easier. To create abstract nouns the root word usually needs to change. Specificsuffixespoint to an abstract noun: -ism, -ment, -ity, -ship, -age, -tion, -ness, and -ability.
Also, abstract nouns can be possessive. They can be singular. They can becountable or uncountable.
List of Nouns – Abstract Nouns Image
Countable and Uncountable Nouns Examples
Items we count using numbers are countable nouns. These nouns are单数或复数. In the singular, countable nouns use a determiner likeaoran.For example:
- I haveadog that smiles.
In the singular form, you can also use the number one.
- I haveonedog that smiles.
The plural form uses a variety of different numbers along with the suffix -s or -es.
- She hasthreedogs.
If asking about a countable noun you would ask, “how much?”
Countable Noun Examples
In contrast,uncountable nounsusually operate with a singular verb. These nouns can be abstract or physically too small to count. Liquids or powders can be uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns rarely have plural forms.
To ask about the quantity of an uncountable noun you would ask, “how much?” Uncountable nouns use expressions like some or a little bit. Additionally, these nouns use exact measurements: a cup of, a bag of, and a pinch of.
Uncountable Noun Examples
Below find examples of how to use an uncountable noun in a sentence.
- I dida little bit of researchon the topic.
- I borroweda bag of flourfrom my neighbor.
Note: Different languages have different nouns that are countable. In English, these words are uncountable: baggage, bread. furniture, traffic, and travel.
Collective Nouns Examples
A group of people, animals, and things are collective nouns. Some collective nouns are versatile while others are not. For example,swarmtypically describes bees and not lions. However, you could deliberately use the wrong collective noun to promote a specific image.
Generally,collective nounsare singular. They are only used in the plural form if they are emphasizing the individual members of a group. To make the plural flow better you can put a phrase likemembers ofin front of the collective term. “The members of congress were sick” may be easier to read than “the congress were sick.”
Note: grammar checking software will most likely want to changeweretowas. Typically, the software views collective nouns as singular.
Two or more words make up acompound noun. Some compound nouns can appear as a single word (closed), a hyphenated phrase, or two separate words (open). There are several different ways to create a compound noun. For example:
- noun + noun (football)
- adjective + noun (whiteboard)
- noun + adjective (handful)
- verb + noun (dining table)
- noun + verb (sunrise)
- verb + preposition (check-out)
- noun + prepositional phrase (brother-in-law)
- preposition + noun (overlord)
Possessive Nouns Examples
Possessive nounsshow ownership. A person, place, or thing can have something that belongs to them. Possessive nouns usually form by adding an‘sto the end of a noun.
- 这只狗‘stoy showed damage.
- The boy‘ssandwich fell on the ground.
If the noun is plural and ends insyou simply add an apostrophe. If the plural form does not end insthen you add‘s.
- The girls’ shoes went missing.
- 这只狗s’ toys went missing.
- The women’s shoes went missing.
Forming Possessive Nouns
Regular Plural Nouns Examples
Aregular plural nounuses the suffixes-sand-esto show more than one person, place, or thing.
- cat < cats
- dog < dogs
- fox < foxes
- girl < girls
Irregular Plural Nouns Examples
Irregular plural nounsare plural nouns that are not formed by using the suffixes-sor-es.Instead, irregular plural nouns undergo separate changes.
Examples of nouns ending in -f or -fe
To create the plural form of the word ending in -fe you need to replace thefwithvthen add-es.
- wife < wives
- life < lives
- leaf < leaves
The words roofs and proofs are exceptions to this pattern.
Examples of nouns ending in -o
To create the plural form of the word ending in -o you need to add-es.
- potato < potatoes
- hero < heroes
Exceptions to this pattern exist. Some words ending in -o only need ansto make it plural. Examples include pianos and photos.
Examples of nouns changing vowels
Sometimesvowelschange in a word when moving from the singular to the plural tense. To illustrate,oocan change toeeorancan change toen.
- tooth < teeth
- woman < women
Large spelling changes
Some nouns take on hugespellingchanges when forming the plural.
- mouse < mice
- ox < oxen
No change plural
We write some nouns the same way whether plural or singular. This includes words like deer, sheep, and fish.
A noun that ends in-exusually takes the ending-iceor-xeswhen forming the plural.
- vortex < vortexes
- index < indices
Gender of Nouns
Common Mistakes with Nouns
- Changing a word that has the same singular and plural form. (You would not add an-sto words like information or furniture to make it plural.)
- Using a singular noun when you need a plural noun.
- Forgetting to use a determiner when the noun is in the singular case.
- Interchanging an uncountable noun for a countable one.
- Inconsistent plural/ singular noun usage.
- Mistaking an irregular noun for a regular one.
Circle the correct answer for every question. Which word correctly represents the noun.
- Thegirlswent to the store. (singular or plural)
- I visited my threesisters. (countable or uncountable)
- Theunderworldgrows dark. (uncountable or compound)
- The girls’ dog liked mice. (possessive or regular plural)
- I added a cup ofsugarto the mix. (countable or uncountable)
- Themuffinwas on the counter. (abstract or concrete)
- Feardivides people. (abstract or possessive)
- I do not havedog. (missing determiner or collective)
- Aflockof seagulls lived by the bay. (abstract or collective)
- How much茶do you have? (countable or uncountable)
The noun is an integral part of the English language, in fact, you cannot make a sentence without one. By understanding their use and the rules surrounding them, you will be able to form grammatically correct sentences.
Last Updated on April 11, 2023